UDC 666.9.03; 693.548

[:ru]Потапова Е. Н.[:en]Potapova, E.[:] [:ru]доктор техн. наук, профессор, Российский химико-технологический университет имени Д. И. Менделеева, г. Москва, Россия[:en]Doctor of Sc., Prof., D. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Moscow, Russia[:]

Alitinform №2 (63) 2021 г. 56-72 p.


Composite materials (from the Latin compositio — combination) are artificially obtained materials formed by a combination of chemically dissimilar components, with an interface between them, properties that are different from the properties of each of the components.
The period of human use of composite materials goes back many centuries, and the concept of composite materials was borrowed by humans from nature [1]. Already in the early stages of the development of civilization, people used clay bricks for building, into which straw and branches were mixed, giving the bricks increased strength. Some ancient unique materials are also composite materials (for example, damask steel). Gypsum binders are the oldest artificial binders. The use of gypsum mortar in ancient Mesopotamia is illustrated by the Tower of Babel and one of the Seven Wonders of the World, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.
Currently, composite binders are increasingly used in construction. The structure of the matrix and the physical and technical properties of the composite based on mineral binders determine the scope of their application and the operating conditions of such building materials.
The range of binders is quite wide: Portland cement and its varieties, special cements, lime and magnesian binders and, of course, gypsum binders. Each material has its own advantages and disadvantages.
Cement-based systems have very good moisture resistance and strength, but tend to shrink, which can lead to product cracking.
Gypsum binders, on the other hand, harden quickly, quickly gain strength and have positive environmental properties. Their production requires up to 10 times less energy, and emissions of CO2 — a greenhouse gas, that affects the climate — 20 times less than cement. However, their disadvantage is poor moisture resistance.

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